EBR (External Beam Radiation)
See External Beam Radiation
A small bruise caused by blood leaking from broken blood vessels into the tissues
of the skin or mucous membranes.
Epstein-Barr virus. A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It has
been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic
lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
In an abnormal position.
The accumulation of fluid in part of the body.
A collection of fluid in a body cavity, usually between two adjoining tissues. For
example, a pleural effusion is the collection of fluid between two layers of the pleura
(the lung's covering).
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
A test that takes recordings of the electrical activity of the heart.
A block in an artery caused by blood clots or other substances, such as fat
globules, infected tissue, or cancer cells.
The blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material. Embolization can be done as
treatment to block the flow of blood to a tumor. See also chemoembolization and
An anti-hypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression
of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be
harmful to the heart.
Confined to a specific, localized area and surrounded by a thin layer of tissue.
A disorder of the brain that can be caused by disease, injury, drugs, or chemicals.
Cancer that occurs in endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones.
Produced inside an organism or cell. The opposite is external (exogenous) production.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ERCP. A procedure to x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct,
duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. In this procedure, a thin, lighted tube
(endoscope) is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small
intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the
endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter
into the ducts, and an x-ray is taken.
EUS. A procedure in which an endoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is inserted into the
body. The endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off
internal organs to make a picture (sonogram). Also called endosonography
A procedure that uses an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition. There are
many types of endoscopy; examples include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy,
gastroscopy, enteroscopy, and esophogealgastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
A drug that is being studied for its ability to prevent the growth of new blood vessels
into a solid tumor. Endostatin belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis
A form of nutrition that is delivered into the digestive system as a liquid. Drinking
nutrition beverages or formulas and tube feeding are forms of enteral nutrition.
People who are unable to meet their needs with food and beverages alone, and
who do not have vomiting or uncontrollable diarrhea may be given tube feedings.
Tube feeding can be used to add to what a person is able to eat or can be the only
source of nutrition. A small feeding tube may be placed through the nose into the
stomach or the small intestine, or it may be surgically placed into the stomach or
the intestinal tract through an opening made on the outside of the abdomen,
depending on how long it will be used.
Biological catalyst;A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
.Enzymes accelerate the rates of reactions while experiencing no permanent
chemical modification as a result of their participation.
Having to do with the upper middle area of the abdomen.
Epinephrine is a naturally occurring hormone, also called adrenaline. It is one of
two chemicals (the other is norepinephrine) released by the adrenal gland.
Epinephrine increases the speed and force of heart beats and thereby the work that
can be done by the heart. It dilates the airways to improve breathing and narrows
blood vessels in the skin and intestine so that an increased flow of blood reaches
the muscles and allows them to cope with the demands of exercise. Epinephrine
has been produced synthetically as a drug since 1900. It remains the drug of
choice for treatment of anaphylaxis. It is contraindicated in the treatment of
carcinoid crisis. Epinephrine provokes flushing in patients with the carcinoid
A drug obtained from bacteria that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones
are being studied as treatments for cancer.
ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
A procedure used to diagnose and sometimes remove gallstones blocking the
common bile duct. It involves swallowing an endoscope, which the doctor gently
moves through the gastrointestinal tract to the small intestine. A special dye is
released into the small intestine so that gallstones can be seen on x-ray. This
technique can be adapted for use in surgery to remove gallstones using a tiny
basket attached to the end of the endoscope. Endoscopic retrograde
Redness of the skin.
The red blood cell that carries oxygen to body cells and carbon dioxide away from body cells
The muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach..
Inflammation of the esophagus (food pipe).
ESR (commonly known as Sed rate)
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in
a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation
rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and
diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called sedimentation rate.
A female hormone produced primarily by the ovaries.
Estrogen receptor assay (ER assay)
A test that determines if breast cancer is stimulated by the hormone estrogen.
The cause or origin of disease.
Etoposide, VP-16 (brand names VePesid®,Toposar®)
Etoposide (e-toe-POE-side) belongs to the group of medicines known as
antineoplastic agents. It is used to treat cancer of the testicles and certain types of
lung cancer. It is also sometimes used to treat some other kinds of cancer in both
males and females. The exact way that etoposide acts against cancer is not known.
However, it seems to interfere with the growth of the cancer cells, which are
External Beam Radiation (EBR)
A radiation treatment that uses a machine to aim high-energy radiation at the
cancerous tissue. For carcinoid it is mainly used for painful bone metastases but is
also useful for brain metastases and is useful for incompletely resected or recurrent
carcinoid of the thymus. There is also some experience indicating possible limited
usefulness for EBR in treating inoperable mediastinal metastases from very
aggressive atypical carcinoids of the lung.
In the presence of renal insufficiency when radiographic iodine containing contrast
cannot be used for angiogram External Beam Radiation (EBR) could have
application in very selective cases. Multi beam EBR has no use and is unsafe to
debulk multiple liver metastases
A procedure in which a needle is inserted, under local anesthesia, to obtain a
sample for the evaluation of suspicious tissue.
False-negative test result
A test result that indicates that a person does not have a specific disease or
condition when the person actually does have the disease or condition.
False-positive test result
A test result that indicates that a person has a specific disease or condition when
the person actually does not have the disease or condition.
A major component of fats that is used by the body for energy and tissue
A narcotic opioid drug that is used in the treatment of pain.
The growth of fibrous tissue.
The removal of tissue or fluid with a needle for examination under a microscope.
Also called needle biopsy.
An abnormal opening between two areas of the body.
Instrument consisting of an X-ray machine and a fluorescent screen that makes it
possible to see internal organs in motion.
Fluorouracil (floor-o-YOOR-a-sil)also called 5-FU
A drug that is used as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs
Flushing (carcinoid flushing)
Carcinoid syndrome occurs in about 10% of patients with these tumors.10 In 75%
of patients, episodes of severe flushing are precipitated by exercise, alcohol,
stress, and certain foods (spices, chocolate, cheese, avocados, plums, walnuts, red
sausage, and red wine). With time the flushing may appear without provocation.
The character of the flush differs depending upon the site of origin of the tumor
Tumors of the foregut (stomach, lung, pancreas) are associated with a bright-red
"geographic" flush of a more sustained duration, as well as lacrimation, wheezing,
sweating, and a sensation of burning. In ileal tumors, the flush is patchier and more
violaceous, intermingled with areas of pallor, and does not last as long. Flushing of
either type may be associated with facial edema that may persist and lead to
telangiectasia and even facial rosacea. The patient should receive an adequate
niacin supplement (nicotinamide rather than nicotinic acid, since the latter causes
flushing) and should avoid foods, agents, and activities that precipitate symptoms
Folic Acid (folate)
A B-complex vitamin that is being studied as a cancer prevention agent. Also called folate.
A highly reactive chemical that often contains oxygen and is produced when
molecules are split to give products that have unpaired electrons (a process called
oxidation). Free radicals can damage important cellular molecules such as DNA or
lipids or other parts of the cell.
Destroying tissue using an electric current.
Fusion scan ( MIBG, OctreoScan or other scans )
The fusion scan electronically fuses combines the images from the OctreoScan or
MIBG scan or any PET other scan with those of a CT scan rendering a final image
that may be superior to those of the individual studies : i.e.a CT scan combined
with the radionuclear scan at the same time, with the patient in the same position is
very valuable method to obtain precise tumor confirmation localizing information
A technique in which tissue is removed and then quick-frozen and examined under
a microscope by a pathologist
Gabapentin (Brand name-Neurontin®)
An anticonvulsant drug also used for relief of peripheral neuropathy pain. family of
The pear-shaped organ found below the liver. Bile is concentrated and stored in the
Solid material that forms in the gallbladder or common bile duct. Gallstones are
made of cholesterol or other substances found in the gallbladder. They may occur
as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a
grain of sand. Also called cholelith.
A type of radiation therapy that uses gamma radiation. Gamma radiation is a type
of high-energy radiation that is different from x-rays.
Radiation therapy in which high-energy rays are aimed at a tumor from many
angles in a single treatment session.
An operation to remove all or part of the stomach.
Having to do with the stomach.
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that
connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called esophageal reflux or
A peptide hormone secreted by cells in the stomach that stimulates secretion of
acid into the lumen of the stomach. Gastrin is a major physiological regulator of
gastric acid secretion. It also has an important trophic or growth-promoting
influence on the gastric mucosa. Excessive secretion of gastrin, or
hypergastrinemia, is a well-recognized cause of a severe disease known as
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is seen at low frequency in man and dogs. The
hallmark of this disease is gastric and duodenal ulceration due to excessive and
unregulated secretion of gastric acid. Most commonly, hypergastrinemia is the
result of gastrin-secreting tumors (gastrinomas), which develop in the pancreas or
A tumor that causes overproduction of gastric acid. It usually occurs in the islet
cells of the pancreas but may also occur in the esophagus, stomach, spleen, or
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that
connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called esophageal reflux or gastric reflux.
Refers to the stomach and intestines.
The stomach and intestines.
An examination of the inside of the stomach using a thin, lighted tube (called a
gastroscope) passed through the mouth and esophagus.
Gefitinib (brand name Iressa®)
Iressa is a new anticancer drug that inhibits an enzyme (tyrosine kinase) present in
lung cancer cells, as well as other cancers and normal tissues, that appears to be
important to the growth of cancer cells. Iressa is used as a single agent for the
treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has progressed after, or
failed to respond to two other types of chemotherapy (drugs used to kill cancer
cells). and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to
the family of drugs called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase
inhibitors. Also called ZD 1839.
Gemcitabine (brand name - Gemzar®)
An anticancer drug
Official non-brand names by which medicines are known. Generic names usually
refer to the chemical name of the drug.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the
wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant.
A peptide hormone produced predominantly by the stomach. Ghrelin appears to be
another hormone produced in almost all gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine
tumors, has little if any biological activity, and may be useful as a marker for
response to therapy.
Clinical features of a ghrelinoma would include the following;
GH excess and increased IGF-1 levels.
Gastric acid hypersecretion
Gleevec® (generic name-Imaptimib)
A drug that is being studied for its ability to inhibit the growth of certain cancers. It
interferes with a portion of the protein produced by the bcr/abl oncogene. Also
called imatinib mesylate and STI571
A hormone produced by the pancreas that increases the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
A rare pancreatic tumor that produces a hormone called glucagon. Glucagonomas
can produce symptoms similar to diabetes, a disease associated with a tumor of the
pancreas. It is marked by excess blood sugar, mouth swelling, anemia, weight loss,
and a rash.
An amino acid used in nutrition therapy. It is also being studied for the treatment of
diarrhea caused by radiation therapy.
The complete genetic material of an organism.
Goblet cell carcinoid (of the appendix)
Goblet cell carcinoid is a rather rare neoplasm that has the histologic features of
both carcinoids and adenocarcinoma. It is a neuroendocrine tumor that is
considered a malignancy that is more aggressive than typical carcinoid tumor of the
A substance made by the body that functions to regulate cell division and cell
survival. Some growth factors are also produced in the laboratory and used in
A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool.